|Progress 01/01/13 to 09/30/13|
Target Audience: In addition to presentations at annual professional meetings and publications, we have submitted written reports of results from the 2012 growing season to the chile commission. We have met with representatives of the irrigation district to discuss options for testing new methods for controlling Equisetum in the irrigation canals. We are working directly with Mr. Howie Koenig, Helena Company, to add pest information to GIS maps of grower fields they are developing for fertilizer applications and yield monitoring. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Two undergraduate students had active roles in our research program in 2013; designing, conducting and presenting results of independent projects. Leslie Holland was a student in the Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) program and conducted research to determine response of tomato and purple nutsedge to a new Meloidogyne species (NSRKN) as well as to do an initial host range study for this nematode species. She presented her work at the Western Society of Weed Science annual meeting in San Diego, CA and at the Undergraduate Research Creative Arts Symposium hosted by the Honors College at NMSU. Samantha Johnson was a student in the sports medicine program and participated in our research as an experimental statistics intern during the summer and fall of 2013. Her work was to analyze the hatching rate of Meloidogyne incognita eggs extracted from different host sources. She presented her project at the NM State University Research Council Research and Creative Activities Fair in October 2013. Both students have gone or will go on to graduate programs. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? In addition to the publications listed, we have submitted written reports of results from the 2012 growing season to the chile commission. We have met with representatives of the irrigation district to discuss options for testing new methods for controlling Equisetum in the irrigation canals. We are working directly with Mr. Howie Koenig, Helena Company, to add pest information to GIS maps of grower fields they are developing for fertilizer applications and yield monitoring. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Better understanding of the role of weed hosts in enhancing and sustaining nematode populations responsible for plant diseases in New Mexico. We will continue research to identify the new Meloidogyne species, learn more about its host range, including weeds, and begin to understand its life cycle in order to determine its potential impact on NM. Continue to evaluate the influence of previous host on nutsedge response to Meloidogyne incognita. Predictive model for southern root-knot nematode, yellow and purple nutsedge populations in production fields. We will continue the research to determine whether we can predict spring populations of M. incognita and yellow and purple nutsedge based on fall nutsedge counts. In addition we will begin to develop hypotheses related to how and when to disrupt the nutsedge/nematode complex in order to minimize the impact of these pests on production. Integrated management tools for Equisetum hyemale infestations on irrigation canals. We need to test the tools we have identified in a field setting, provided we can get permission to conduct the studies. Integrated management tools for weed control in chile pepper. Herbicide screening will be conducted. In addition, work will continue to assess emergence patterns of the primary weeds infesting chile pepper.
What was accomplished under these goals? Research to investigate the relationships among four plant species (Capsicum annuum, Physalis acutifolia, Anoda cristata, and Ipomoea purpurea), Verticillium dahliae, and Meloidogyne incognita concluded with publication. Three relationships were identified: V. dahliae was recovered from 100% of all four inoculated plant species, irrespective of M.incognita treatment; V. dahliae and M. incognita enhanced or had no effect on weed biomass but were pathogenic to chile; and co-infection by V. dahliae had no effect on nematode reproduction in the first M. incognita generation on the crop or weeds. These biological relationships suggest that the competitive impact of the weeds may increase and pathogen diversity may be affected in infested fields, ultimately impacting the efficacy of our common IPM tools. Research to understand the interactions among yellow (YNS) and purple nutsedge (PNS) and southern root-knot nematode (SRKN) is continuing with a study in progress to determine if the crop host source (chile (Capsicum annuum), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)) for SRKN affects subsequent reproduction on and tuber infection of the nutsedge. In addition, collaborative research continues to focus on developing modeling approaches to predict spring nematode populations that resurge from nematodes overwintering in nutsedge tubers based on fall nutsedge shoot counts. A new Meloidogyne species (NSRKN) was found in NM fields that causes galling of PNS roots (host) but not galling of tomato roots (nonhost), unlike SRKN. Morphological assessment showed that the second stage juveniles (J2) were smaller than SRKN with a shorter stylet and long thin tail. Dr. Jon Eisenback, Virginia Tech, determined that NSRKN is similar to M. naasi; although further identification work will be needed. Recent work also evaluated the effect of the two Meloidogyne species on tomato and purple nutsedge photosynthesis rate and biomass accumulation. Photosynthesis rate of tomato and PNS was not affected by either nematode species when inoculated with 1000 J2/plant. Initial host range studies suggest that YNS, PNS, and several cool season grasses may be hosts. In addition, we have observed phenotypes of nutsedge that appear to be hybrids between yellow and purple nutsedge. Dr. Charles Bryson, retired USDA/ARS botanist, examined specimens of these variants and concluded the plants are well within the range of variability for both species. In addition, the C. esculentus specimens are within the variability of variety leptostachyus, the most common and widespread of the three yellow nutsedge varieties in North America. A screening study continued to determine the effect of Sonar Genesis (fluridone), Clearcast (imazamox), Galleon (penoxulam) and combinations on Equisetum hyemale, a major weed of irrigation canals, under greenhouse conditions. Neither Clearcast nor Galleon was effective; however, all Sonar Genesis containing treatments reduced stem and below-ground biomass weight compared to the control. Field evaluations of herbicides for use in chile pepper have continued. Field plots were established to evaluate the effectiveness of new Devrinol (napropamide) formulations applied preplant incorporated 24, 48, or 72 hours prior to planting and pre-emergence in chile when combined with clomazone. Weeds evaluated were Palmer amaranth, Wright groundcherry, spurred anoda, and junglerice. Devrinol applied pre-emergence provided enough weed suppression to increase yield by nearly 15,000 kg/ha and reduce the time required to hoe plots by two-thirds compared to the untreated control.
- Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Sanogo, S., Schroeder, J., Thomas, S., Murray, L., Schmidt, N., Beacham, J., Fiore, C., and Liess, L. 2013. Weed species not impaired by Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita relationships that damage chile pepper. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2013-0920-01-RS.
- Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mohseni-Moghadam, M., J. Schroeder, J. Ashigh. 2013. Mechanism of resistance and inheritance in glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) populations from New Mexico, U.S.A. Weed Science 61: 517-525.
- Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Vetter, J., Z. Ou, L. Murray, S. H. Thomas, J. Schroeder. 2013. Determining the effectiveness of including spatial information into a nematode/nutsedge pest complex model. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Kansas State University Conference on Applied Statistics in Agriculture: 109-124. Manhattan, KS, April 29-May 1, 2012.
- Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mohseni-Moghadam, M., J. Schroeder, R. Heerema, J. Ashigh. 2013. Resistance to Glyphosate in Amaranthus palmeri Populations from New Mexico. Weed Technology 27:85-91.
- Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Banks, P. A., T. C. Mueller, J. Schroeder. 2013. Simulated spray drift versus spray tank contamination studies: what are the differences and why does it matter? Weed Science Society of America, abstracts 53:213.
- Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Holland, L. A., J. Schroeder, S. Thomas, L. Murray. 2013. Physiological and genetic comparison and host assay of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) and other plant species in response to the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and the nutsedge root-knot nematode. Proceedings, Western Society of Weed Science 66:55.
- Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Johnson, S., J. Beacham, S. Thomas, J. Schroeder, L. Murray, N. Schmidt. 2013. Virulence of Southern Root-Knot Nematode on Nutsedge from Various Inoculum Sources. 13th Annual University Research Council Research and Creative Activities Fair, New Mexico State University. October 4, 2013.
- Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mohseni-Moghadam, M., J. Schroeder, J. Ashigh. 2013. Growth and Competitive ability of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) populations from New Mexico as compared to susceptible populations. Weed Science Society of America, abstracts 53:90.
|Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12|
OUTPUTS: Two primary weeds of concern for irrigation canal management include scouringrush (Equisetum hyemale) and feather fingergrass (Chloris virgata). A screening study was conducted to determine the effect of Sonar Genesis (fluridone), Clearcast (imazamox), and their combination on E. hyemale under greenhouse conditions. Clearcast alone was not effective; however, all Sonar Genesis containing treatments reduced stem number and weight compared to the control. Below-ground dry weight was reduced significantly by treatment with Sonar Genesis at 2.24 kg ai/ha applied postemergence. Additional work to further evaluate control options is planned. Feather fingergrass was not controlled by applications of glyphosate in one of the local pecan orchards. Preliminary greenhouse studies were conducted and results suggested that glyphosate was not effective on this species; however, several soil active herbicides were effective. The research to evaluate postemergence herbicides was repeated using a different source of feather fingergrass seed and results showed that glyphosate was very effective in controlling this population. Further studies are planned to compare glyphosate effectiveness on several populations of feather fingergrass. Preliminary studies demonstrated that feather fingergrass seed is dormant for approximately three months after plant maturity. Field evaluations of herbicides for use in chile pepper have continued. Field plots were established to evaluate the effectiveness of herbicides applied at four stages of weed growth including pre-emergence, cotyledon to 2-inch, 2- to 4-inch, and 4-to 6-inch. Weeds evaluated were Palmer amaranth, Wright groundcherry, spurred anoda, and tall morningglory. Herbicides included sulfentrazone, halosulfuron, imazosulfuron, carfentrazone, and flumioxazin. Results were fairly consistent with 2011 observations in that overall reduction in weed dry weight was greatest when herbicides were applied at the cotyledon to 2-inch stage, with the exception of imazosulfuron which was most effective applied pre-emergence. The predominant weeds were Palmer amaranth and Wright groundcherry; flumioxazin and carfentrazone applied at the cotyledon to 2-inch stage controlled both species. Research to understand the interactions among yellow and purple nutsedge and southern root-knot nematode is continuing. Recent work is evaluating the effect of two Meloidogyne species on tomato and purple nutesedge photosynthesis rate and biomass accumulation. In addition, collaborative research continues to focus on developing modeling approaches to predict spring nematode populations that resurge from nematodes overwintering in nutsedge tubers based on fall nutsedge shoot counts. In addition, we have observed phenotypes of nutsedge that appear to be hybrids between yellow and purple nutsedge. Specimens of these variants have been sent to Dr. Charles Bryson, retired USDA/ARS botanist, for species identification. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.
Urban landscapes and crop production land in arid New Mexico are dependent on irrigation water supplied by compacted earthen canals and laterals either continuously or intermittently throughout the nine month irrigation season. Equisetum hyemale has been an increasing problem on the canals, using water intended for irrigation and obstructing water flow in irrigation canals. The research will result in new management tools for suppressing Equisetum populations on canals. However, in recent drought years, Equisetum populations have been suppressed by feather fingergrass on many canal banks; these populations have been managed by spraying with low rates of glyphosate. Preliminary data suggests that New Mexico populations of feather fingergrass vary in their response to glyphosate leading to concerns that these populations are evolving resistance to this herbicide. Growers and others rely heavily on glyphosate for their weed management. Identification of weeds that are not controlled by this herbicide will reduce ineffective use of this product and will also reduce the selection pressure that results in either selection for weed species that are not controlled by glyphosate or to species that have evolved resistance to glyphosate. The research on effectiveness of herbicides used in chile pepper will result in better recommendations to growers who are interested in using these products for weed management in this non-competitive crop. Without effective weed management tools, advances in mechanical harvesting will not be realized because weeds will continue to hinder the ability of the harvesters to remove the chile fruit in the field. The work to develop modeling approaches for predicting the presence or counts of root-knot nematodes based on nutsedge counts will result in additional tools for growers to identify problem areas in their fields before the pest complex becomes dominant. Finally, clear and correct identification of the nutsedge species complex present in New Mexico fields is critical to defining the weed problems faced by growers.
- Mohseni-Moghadam, M., J. Ashigh, J. Schroeder. 2012. Mechanism of Resistance to Glyphosate in Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Populations from New Mexico. Proceedings, Western Society of Weed Science 65:98.
- Murray, L., S. H. Thomas, J. Schroeder, S. Kreider, Z. Ou, J. M. Trojan, and C. Fiore. 2012. Modeling the Root-Knot Nematode/Nutsedge Pest Complex using the Poisson Family of Distributions: Perspectives from Weed Science, Nematology and Statistics. Proceedings of the 2011 Kansas State University Conference on Applied Statistics in Agriculture. Volume 23:128-151.
- Potter, M. T., R. J. Heerema, J. Schroeder, J. Ashigh, D. VanLeeuwen, C. Fiore. 2012. Mature Pecan Orchard Floor Vegetation Management in Southern New Mexico: Impacts on Tree Water Status, Nutrient Content and Nut Production. HortScience 47:727-732.
- Schroeder, J., L. Murray, A. Ulery, C. Fiore, X. Liu, H. Nguyen. 2012. Identification and Detection of Problem and Noxious Weeds on Irrigation Canals will Lead to Effective Weed Management Programs and Increase Water for Irrigation: Survey of the Vegetation and Soils of the Leasburg Canal System 2002-2006. AES Research Report 777: http://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/research/water/RR777.pdf.
- McCloskey, W. B., J. Schroeder, J. M. Richardson. 2012. Preemergence Herbicides and Weed Management in Southwestern Pecans. Proceedings, Western Society of Weed Science 65:106.
- Mohseni-Moghadam, M., J. Ashigh, J. Schroeder. 2012. Weed Control and Resistance Management in NM Pecan Orchards. Proceedings, Western Society of Weed Science 65:107.
- Schroeder, J., W. Everman, L. Glasgow, L. Ingegneri, D. Shaw, J. Soteres, J. Stachler, F. Tardif. 2012. Herbicide Resistance Education from WSSA – A Critical Step in Proactive Management. Proceedings, Western Society of Weed Science 65:95.
- Schroeder, J., D. Kenny. 2012. EPA SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT: Update on activities. Weed Science Society of America, abstracts 52: 397.